πŸ” Warning. This article pertains to sensitive subjects. If you comment below, be advised... Do not make statements about the DOD, NSA, CIA, or FBI. Such posts are subject to being removed. In the United States, your First Amendment right to freedom of Speech is regulatory.[1] You may recommend article changes here.

MKUltra was a secret project of Research and Development (R&D) at Harvard University. One of its primary developers was Harvard director Henry Murray.[11]

Frank Olson

The death of Frank Olson on November 28, 1953 in Manhattan, became a major lead for investigators to become aware of MKUltra.[12][13] Frank Olson was a civilian bacteriologist for the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories (USBWL) who worked at Camp Detrick. The installation established the top secret U.S. bioweapons program in 1943.[14] Frank Olson worked with Pediatrician Harold Abramson in research experiments with aerosolized anthrax.[15] Abramson was an early advocate of therapeutic LSD.[16]

In May 1952, Frank Olson was appointed to the committee for Project Artichoke, an experimental US interrogation program.[17][18]

According to investigative journalist Gordon Thomas, British psychiatrist William Sargant stated that Frank Olson had become a security threat and his access to military facilities should be limited.[14] The Rockefeller Commission report in 1975,[19] indicated that Frank Olson had been dosed with LSD, without his knowledge, nine days before his death.[20][13]

In 1975, it was revealed to the public for the first time that unethical experiments were being conducted on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects[21] as part of an extensive program known as MKUltra. The limited details of the program was contained in a report prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963. In a prepared Statement by Admiral Stansfield Turner, the program's agenda was to find out how to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline, and other chemical, biological, and psychological means.[22]

In 1994, the Olson family had Frank Olson's body exhumed to be buried with his wife. The family decided to have a second autopsy performed to implicate "wrongful death".[13] On September 28, 1994, the U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.[23]

Harvard University

Harvard University, hailed as "The Michigan of the East" by then Senator John F. Kennedy,[24] was involved in MKUltra[25] from 1948[26] to 1974.[27][28] Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973, so it has been difficult for investigators to gain the full scope of the more than 150 funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKUltra.[29][30]

Harvard is a private Ivy League research institution in New England, USA.[31] Abroad, Harvard owns the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy[32] and the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China.[33] Villa I Tatti in Florence, opened in 1961 and is not open to the general public.[34]

Admissions to Harvard opened up to bring in more diverse groups of students between 1945 and 1960. By limiting drawings from select New England prep schools,[35] more Catholics, Jews, and other minority groups were able to be admitted.[36][37]

Henry Murray

Boston Psychoanalytic Society
Murray and Cobb's research helped to found the Boston Psychoanalytic Society in 1931.[8][38]

In 1927, at the age of 33, Henry Murray, assistant director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic, collaborated with Stanley Cobb, Bullard Professor of Neuropathology at the Medical School, to introduce psychoanalysis into the Harvard curriculum. The agenda was influenced by the decision-making apparatus in Vienna, Austria.[8]

In 1935, Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan developed the concept of "apperception", a theory that enabled Murray to come up with the "situation test" which he used in selection processes. After becoming director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic, Murray acted as a consultant for the British Government, to help set up the British War Officer Selection Board in 1938.[8] Murray's "situation test" was also used to select secret agents for the United States in 1939, after he became lieutenant colonel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In 1943, Lt. Murray helped complete Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler.[39][11]

In 1947, Henry Murray was introduced to project MKUltra.[40][41] The program was not Murray's invention,[42] but he helped to establish it in the United States at the Psychological Clinic Annex.[43] As chief researcher, Murray was involved with developing drugs that might be useful for mind control such as Lysergic acid diethylamide.[44] Psychologist Timothy Leary, who began research in psychedelic drugs at Harvard in 1960, said that Henry Murray supervised the program.[45] They tested mind control drugs on people, some without their knowledge.[44]

Henry Murray was responsible for unethical experiments, most notably from late 1959 to early 1962, in which he used twenty-two Harvard undergraduates as research subjects[46] being of Jewish and Polish descent.[47]

The unwitting undergraduates were submitted to "vehement, sweeping and personally abusive" attacks, specifically-tailored to assault the ego,[41] self identity. The Freudian concept, "Ego" (which comes from German "Ich") is the most central part of the mind, which mediates with one's surroundings.[48]

Ted Kaczynski

In 1959, Harvard psychoanalysts measured their undergrad subjects' responses to extreme stress. The minority group's cherished ideas and beliefs were challenged to the point of distress. The subjects were repeatedly made to view recorded footage of their reactions to their abuse.[41] Among them was 17-year-old Polish undergrad, Ted Kaczynski.[49]

Boy scouts, were used across the United States to recruit unwitting[41] high school students, of minority class, to Harvard. Some known scout names are "briefcase boys",[50] "Montauk boys" and "Bohemian boys". In the case of Ted Kaczynski, he was a prime candidate for Murray's Harvard program. A former classmate said: "He was never really seen as a person, as an individual personality".[51] By breaking the mind of Freudian "Ego", creates loss of self-identity; the void enables a subject to become one with a unit[52]β€”the essence of Henry Murray's selection process in MKUltra.[8]

Ted Kaczynski was considered a social outcast at Evergreen Park High.[50] His mother Wanda recalled Ted being a shy child who would become unresponsive if pressured into social situations.[53] One time Wanda was so worried about his social behavior that she consulted outside help, and was directed to Bruno Bettelheim,[47] an Austrian born psychologist. Wanda received a tip about Bettelheim's abusive treatment of students, and decided not to enroll her son.[54][55] Because Wanda sought psychological consultation for her son, the Polish Kaczynski family was under the radar. The "briefcase boys" were sent to watch Ted Kaczynski at Evergreen Park High.

The Foundry. Evergreen Park Community High School District 231 in Chicago was established in 1954[56] with the distinct purpose to supply candidates to their designated Ivy League institution. School district staff, among many community High Schools, were unaware of the secretive project MKUltra that they were subjected to. The "briefcase boys", notable for carrying briefcases,[50] scouted the Chicago area for young MKUltra candidates. They targeted High School Freshmen.

College Board SATs
Between the period of 1958 and 1975, students were given extended time limits to complete SAT questions. In 1959, questions on data sufficiency were introduced to the mathematics section and then replaced with quantitative comparisons in 1974.[57] In 1952, the mean math scores were generally stable in the 1950s and early 1960s. But then from 1961 to 1977, the number of SATs taken per year had doubled, impacting score statistics.[58]

The "briefcase boys" eventually befriended Ted Kaczynski during his Freshman year. They encouraged and tutored him to excel in academic courses, primarily in mathematics. They seduced him by calling him a "walking brain",[51] and got him to join the mathematics club. Eventually they encouraged him to join the biology, coin, and German clubs.[50][59] With the underhanded help of the "briefcase boys", they made Kaczynski appear to be an Advanced Placement. Advanced Placement (AP) is a program in the United States and Canada created by the College Board which offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students. A pilot AP program was run in 1952 which covered eleven disciplines. In the 1955–56 school year, it was nationally implemented in ten subjects with Mathematics being primary.[60]

With Kaczynski appearing to be ahead of his classmates academically, he was placed in an advanced mathematics class. Evergreen Park High was authorized to have Kaczynski skip the eleventh grade and attend summer school, so that he could graduated at the age of 15. The unprecedented measure honored him as one of the school's five National Merit finalists eligible for Harvard.[59] He entered Harvard on a false scholarship in 1958 at the age of 16.[61] Kaczynski was emotionally unprepared for what the "briefcase boys" and Evergreen Park High was setting him up for. "They packed him up and sent him to Harvard before he was ready... He didn't even have a driver's license."[51]

During his first year at Harvard, Theodore Kaczynski lived at 8 Prescott Street, which was designed to accommodate the youngest, most precocious incoming students in a small, intimate living space. For the next three years, he lived at Eliot House.[62] Kaczynski and other minority Undergrads were persuaded to participate in a psychological study led by Harvard director Henry Murray. Subjects were told they would be debating personal philosophy with fellow students, and were asked to write essays detailing their personal beliefs and aspirations. The essays were turned over to an anonymous agent, who in a later session would confront and belittle the subject – making "vehement, sweeping, and personally abusive" attacks. The agent used the content of the essays as verbal ammunition, while electrodes monitored the subject's physiological reactions. The sessions were filmed, capturing the subjects' expressions of anger and rage, and then later played back to them repeatedly.[49] The experiment lasted three years, with someone verbally abusing and humiliating Kaczynski each week.[63] Kaczynski spent 200 hours as part of the study,[64] described as a "purposely brutalizing psychological experiment".[49]

Ted Kaczynski has stated that he resented Murray and his co-workers, primarily due to the invasion of privacy he perceived due to their experiments. Kaczynski, choosing his words carefully for a statement that he was obligated to make, said that he is "quite confident that my experiences with Professor Murray had no significant effect on the course of my life".[65] Kaczynski never had experiences directly with Professor Murray.

Some five years later, Kaczynski moved to the San Francisco Bay Area. He became an assistant professor of mathematics at the University of California, about 20 minutes away from San Francisco. Kaczynski resided in the Bay Area from 1967 to 1969.[66] During that time period, the FBI was investigating five homicides in a serial killing spree by the "Zodiac Killer".[67] The Zodiac Killer was writing letters to newspapers demanding they publish his messages with the threat of continued killings if his demands were not met.[68]

Zodiac Killer[67]

Based on the findings of Mike Rusconi, Doug Oswell and Michael Mageau, Ted Kaczynski is the "Zodiac Killer". The most compelling evidence for the connection are three points: (1) Ted Kaczynski matched the description of the Zodiac Killer's profile sketch. (2) During the Lake Berryessa attack, the Zodiac mentioned that he had escaped from Deer Lodge, Montana. Kaczynski's cabin was located just an hour's drive from the city. (3) The name "Theodore Kaczynski" fits perfectly in an undeciphered sequence of letters in one of the Zodiac letters.[69] The FBI however, is not pursuing Kaczynski for the Zodiac killings because the would be "Unabomber" had become the longest and most expensive investigation in FBI history.[70][71]

At the University of California, Kaczynski taught undergraduate courses in geometry and calculus.[72] His teaching evaluations indicated that he was not well-liked by his students: he seemed uncomfortable teaching, taught straight from the textbook, and refused to answer questions.[51] This evaluated behavior reinforces the fact that he was not as advanced in mathematics as he was assessed to be[73] Sophomore year at Evergreen Park High, only ten years prior. It also indicates that Kaczynski did not join the High School academic clubs on his own accord.[74]

Theodore Kaczynski in prison[75]

Ted Kaczynski was arrested April 3, 1996, in his cabin in Montana, the day after an unknown "Italian Unabomber" terrorist set off a bomb in Claut, Pordenone, Italy.[76] Kaczynski was a person of interest to the FBI, and so was the Italian Unabomber, whom the US Bureau was assisting Italian police in the surveillance of a suspect.[77] Bombings were frequently happening in Veneto, Italy, about 3 hours away from Harvard's Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy.[32]

Kaczynski is serving eight life sentences without the possibility of parole at ADX Florence, a supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.[75] Theodore Kaczynski's writings are among the most popular selections in the University of Michigan's special collections. The identity of correspondents and the names of over 400 people are to remain sealed until 2049.[78][79][80]

University of Michigan

University of Michigan was involved in MKUltra from 1948[81] to 1974.[82][83] Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973, limiting the scope of MKUltra sub-projects.[29] When Rensis Likert established ISR at Michigan and Henry Murray established PCA at Harvard in 1948, MKUltra testing and experimentation began in the education system.[84]

Rensis Likert

In 1947, Rensis Likert was introduced to project MKUltra at the University of Michigan.[85][41] The program was not Likert's invention.

See also

References

  1. ↑ Wikipedia, First Amendment to the United States Constitution
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 Wikipedia, Project MKUltra#Aims and leadership
  3. ↑ Wikipedia, Frank Olson
  4. ↑ Wikipedia, Advanced Placement#Criticism
  5. ↑ Wikipedia, Eight Schools Association
  6. ↑ Sirica, John J. (1979). To Set the Record Straight: The Break-in, the Tapes, the Conspirators, the Pardon. New York: Norton. p. 44. ISBN 0-393-01234-4.
  7. ↑ Elizabeth Nickson (October 16, 1994). "Mind Control: My Mother, the CIA and LSD". The Observer.
  8. ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Wikipedia, Henry Murray#Professional career
  9. ↑ Wikipedia, Ivy League
  10. ↑ Wikipedia, Ivy Preparatory School League
  11. ↑ 11.0 11.1 Wikipedia, Henry Murray#Harvard human experiments, 1959-62
  12. ↑ Hersh, Seymour M. (1974-12-22). "Huge C.i.a. Operation Reported in U.s. Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331
  13. ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wikipedia, Frank Olson#Murder and wrongful death allegations
  14. ↑ 14.0 14.1 Ignatieff, Michael (April 1, 2001). "What did the C.I.A. do to Eric Olson's father?". The New York Times Magazine
  15. ↑ Regis, Ed (1999). The Biology of Doom: America's Secret Germ Warfare Project. New York: Henry Holt & Company, p.158. ISBN 978-0-80505-764-5.
  16. ↑ Wikipedia, Harold Alexander Abramson
  17. ↑ Olson, E (2002-08-22). "Family Statement on the Murder of Frank Olson"
  18. ↑ Wikipedia, Frank Olson#Work with Army and CIA
  19. ↑ "CIA Documents Concerning The Death of Dr. Frank Olson" (PDF). Frank Olson Project. January 11, 1975.
  20. ↑ Coen, Bob; Nadler, Eric (2009). Dead Silence: Fear and Terror on the Anthrax Trail. Berkeley: Counterpoint Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-58243-509-1.
  21. ↑ Wikipedia, Unethical human experimentation in the United States
  22. ↑ Wikipedia, Project MKUltra#Revelation
  23. ↑ Wikipedia, Project MKUltra#1994 U.S. General Accounting Office report
  24. ↑ "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy at the University of Michigan - Student Union Building Steps". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. October 14, 1960
  25. ↑ Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Harvard College
  26. ↑ Wikipedia, History of the University of Michigan#Later 20th centuryβ€”Increasing student activism
  27. ↑ Wikipedia, Project MKUltra
  28. ↑ Wikipedia, Zodiac Killer#Final Zodiac letter
  29. ↑ 29.0 29.1 Horrock, Nicholas M. (4 Aug 1977). "80 Institutions Used in C.I.A. Mind Studies: Admiral Turner Tells Senators of Behavior Control Research Bars Drug Testing Now". New York Times.
  30. ↑ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. "Because most of the MK-ULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 ..."
  31. ↑ Wikipedia, Harvard University
  32. ↑ 32.0 32.1 "Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies". Itatti.it.
  33. ↑ "Shanghai Center". Harvard.edu.
  34. ↑ Wikipedia, Villa I Tatti, visitor information
  35. ↑ Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
  36. ↑ Powell, Alvin (October 1, 2018). "An update on Harvard's diversity, inclusion efforts". The Harvard Gazette.
  37. ↑ Wikipedia, SAT#1946 test and associated changes
  38. ↑ Wikipedia, Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute
  39. ↑ Wikipedia, Henry Murray#World War II, Office of Strategic Services, 1939-45
  40. ↑ Chase, Alston. "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  41. ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 Wikipedia, Henry Murray#Harvard human experiments, 1959-62
  42. ↑ "MKUltra: Inside the CIA's Cold War mind control experiments". The Week. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  43. ↑ Moreno, Jonathan (2012). Mind Wars: Brain Science and the Military in the 21st Century. Bellevue Literary Press, NYU School of Medicine. ISBN 9781934137437.
  44. ↑ 44.0 44.1 Nofil B. "The CIA's Appalling Human Experiments With Mind Control". History Channel.
  45. ↑ Jonathan D Moreno Harvard's Experiment on the Unabomber, Class of '62 Psychology Today May 25, 2012
  46. ↑ Chase A (June 1, 2000). "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber". The Atlantic Monthly. pp. 41–65. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
  47. ↑ 47.0 47.1 Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Childhood
  48. ↑ Wiktionary, ego#Etymology
  49. ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Chase, Alston (2003). Harvard and the Unabomber The Education of an American Terrorist. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0393020029.
  50. ↑ 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Martin, Andrew; Becker, Robert (April 16, 1996). "Egghead Kaczynski Was Loner in High School". Chicago Tribune.
  51. ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 McFadden, Robert D. (May 26, 1996). "Prisoner of Rage – A special report.; From a Child of Promise to the Unabom Suspect". The New York Times.
  52. ↑ Wikipedia, Brainwashing
  53. ↑ Ferguson, Paul (1997). "A loner from youth". CNN.
  54. ↑ Karr-Morse, Robin (January 3, 2012). Scared Sick: The Role of Childhood Trauma in Adult Disease (2 ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01354-8.
  55. ↑ Wikipedia, Bruno Bettelheim#Abusive treatment of students
  56. ↑ Wikipedia, Evergreen Park Community High School District 231
  57. ↑ Lawrence, Ida; Rigol, Gretchen W.; Van Essen, Thomas; Jackson, Carol A. (2003). "Research Report No. 2003-3: A Historical Perspective on the Content of the SAT" (PDF). College Entrance Examination Board.
  58. ↑ Wikipedia, SAT#1960s and 1970s score declines
  59. ↑ 59.0 59.1 Achenbach, Joel; Kovaleski, Serge F. (April 7, 1996). "The Profile of a Loner". The Washington Post
  60. ↑ Wikipedia, Advanced Placement#History
  61. ↑ Hickey, Eric W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Murder and Violent Crime. Sage Publications. p. 268.
  62. ↑ Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Harvard College
  63. ↑ Moreno, Jonathan D (May 25, 2012). "Harvard's Experiment on the Unabomber, Class of '62". Psychology Today.
  64. ↑ Gitlin, Todd (March 2, 2003). "A Dangerous Mind". The Washington Post.
  65. ↑ Sperber, Michael (2010). Dostoyevsky's Stalker and Other Essays on Psychopathology and the Arts. University Press of America. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7618-4993-3.
  66. ↑ Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Arrest
  67. ↑ 67.0 67.1 Wikipedia, Zodiac Killer
  68. ↑ Fagan, Kevin; Wallace, Bill (May 14, 1996). "Kaczynski, Zodiac Killer – the Same Guy?". San Francisco Chronicle.
  69. ↑ Unsolved Mysteries, Zodiac Killer
  70. ↑ "The Unabomb Trial". CNN. 1997.
  71. ↑ Howlett, Debbie (November 13, 1996). "FBI Profile: Suspect is educated and isolated". USA Today. The 17-year search for the bomber has been the longest and costliest investigation in FBI history."
  72. ↑ Li, Ivy (November 10, 2016). "A neo-Luddite manifesto?". The Tech.
  73. ↑ Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Mathematics career
  74. ↑ Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski, High School
  75. ↑ 75.0 75.1 Wikipedia, Ted Kaczynski#Incarceration
  76. ↑ Wikipedia, Italian Unabomber#1996
  77. ↑ Wikipedia, Italian Unabomber
  78. ↑ Herrada, Julie. "Letters to the Unabomber: A Case Study and Some Reflections." Archival Issues (2003): 35–46.
  79. ↑ Bailey, Holly (January 25, 2016). "Letters from a serial killer: Inside the Unabomber archive". Yahoo News. It has been almost 20 years since Ted Kaczynski's trail of terror came to an end. Now a huge trove of his personal writings has come to light, revealing the workings of his mind – and the life he leads behind bars.
  80. ↑ "Labadie Manuscripts". University of Michigan Library
  81. ↑ Wikipedia, History of the University of Michigan#Later 20th centuryβ€”Increasing student activism
  82. ↑ Wikipedia, Project MKUltra
  83. ↑ Wikipedia, Zodiac Killer#Final Zodiac letter
  84. ↑ Wikipedia, World War II, Office of Strategic Services, 1939-45
  85. ↑ Chase, Alston. "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
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